Cell Transplant. 2015;24(3):487-92. doi: 10.3727/096368915X686940. Epub 2015 Feb 2.
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in neural regenerative medicine.
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have two essential characteristics with regard to regenerative medicine: the convenient and efficient generation of large numbers of multipotent cells and in vitro proliferation without a loss of stemness. The implementation of clinical trials has prompted widespread concern regarding safety issues and has shifted research toward the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in dealing with neural degeneration in cases such as stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, cavernous nerve injury, and traumatic brain injury. Most existing studies have reported that cell therapies may be able to replenish lost cells and promote neuronal regeneration, protect neuronal survival, and play a role in overcoming permanent paralysis and loss of sensation and the recovery of neurological function. The mechanisms involved in determining therapeutic capacity remain largely unknown; however, this concept can still be classified in a methodical manner by citing current evidence. Possible mechanisms include the following: 1) the promotion of angiogenesis, 2) the induction of neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis, 3) reductions in reactive gliosis, 4) the inhibition of apoptosis, 5) the expression of neurotrophic factors, 6) immunomodulatory function, and 7) facilitating neuronal integration. In this study, several human clinical trials using ADSCs for neuronal disorders were investigated. It is suggested that ADSCs are one of the choices among various stem cells for translating into clinical application in the near future.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;126(4):293-301. doi: 10.1254/jphs.14R10CP. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
Therapeutic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells in neurological disorders.
Stem cell therapy has been noted as a novel strategy to various diseases including neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease,Parkinson’s disease, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease that have no effective treatment available to date. Theadipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adipose tissue, are well known for their pluripotency with the ability to differentiate into various types of cells and immuno-modulatory property. These biological features make ASCs a promising source for regenerative cell therapy in neurological disorders. Here we discuss the recent progress of regenerative therapies in various neurological disorders utilizing ASCs.
Regen Med. 2015 May;10(4):431-46. doi: 10.2217/rme.15.17.
Adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells induce long-term neurogenic and anti-inflammatory effects and improve cognitive but not motor performance in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are easily harvested, and possess anti-inflammatory and trophic properties. Furthermore, MSC promote neuroprotection and neurogenesis, which could greatly benefit neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease.
MSC were transplanted one week after 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning and effects were evaluated after 6 months.
MSC localized around the substantia nigra and the arachnoid mater, expressing pericyte and endothelial markers. MSC protected dopamine levels and upregulated peripheral anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, adipose-derived MSC increased neurogenesis in hippocampal and subventricular regions, and boosted memory functioning.
Considering that hyposmia and loss of memory function are two major nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease, transplants with modulatory effects on the hippocampus and subventricular zone could provide a disease-modifying therapy.
Parkinson’s disease; adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; adult stem cells; neurogenesis; plasticity; regeneration